Mouth cancer refers to cancer that develops in any of the parts that structure the mouth (oral cavity). Mouth cancer can occur on the:
- Inner lining of the cheeks
- Roof of the mouth
- Floor of the mouth (under the tongue) Cancer that happens within the mouth is usually called oral cancer or oral cavity cancer.
Mouth cancer is one of several types of cancers grouped in a category called head and neck cancers. Mouth cancer and other head and neck cancers are often treated similarly.
Signs and symptoms of mouth cancer may include:
- A lip or mouth sore that doesn't heal
- A white or reddish patch on the inside of your mouth
- Loose teeth
- A growth or lump inside your mouth
- Mouth pain
- Ear pain
- Difficult or painful swallowing
Mouth cancers form when cells on the lips or within the mouth develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The mutation changes tell the cells to continue growing and dividing when healthy cells would die. The accumulating abnormal mouth cancer cells can form a tumor. With time they'll spread inside the mouth and on to other areas of the top and neck or other parts of the body. Mouth cancers most ordinarily begin within the flat, thin cells (squamous cells) that line your lips and therefore the inside your mouth. Most oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. It's not clear what causes the mutations in squamous cells that cause mouth cancer. But doctors have identified factors that will increase the danger of mouth cancer. Risk factors
Factors that can increase your risk of mouth cancer include:
- Tobacco use of any kind, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, and snuff, among others
- Heavy alcohol use
- Excessive sun exposure to your lips
- A sexually transmitted virus called human papillomavirus (HPV)
- A weakened immune system
There's no proven way to prevent mouth cancer. However, you'll reduce your risk of mouth cancer if you:
- Stop using tobacco or don't start. If you employ tobacco, stop. If you do not use tobacco, don't start. Using tobacco, whether smoked or chewed, exposes the cells in your mouth to dangerous cancer-causing chemicals
- Drink alcohol only in moderation, if at all. Chronic excessive alcohol use can irritate the cells in your mouth, making them susceptible to mouth cancer. If you select to drink alcohol, do so carefully. For healthy adults, meaning up to at least one drink each day for ladies of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to 2 drinks each day for men age 65 and younger.
- Avoid excessive sun exposure to your lips. Protect the skin on your lips from the sun by staying within the shade when possible. Wear a broad-brimmed hat that effectively shades your entire face, including your mouth. Apply a sunscreen lip product as a part of your routine sun protection regimen.
- See your dentist regularly. As a part of a routine dental exam, ask your dentist to examine your entire mouth for abnormal areas that will indicate mouth cancer or precancerous changes.